A Delphi study to identify content for a new questionnaire based on the 10 Principles of Dignity in Care

Louise Heuzenroeder, Faizal Ibrahim, Jyoti Khadka, Richard Woodman, Alison Kitson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Aim and Objective: To generate content for a new questionnaire, based on the 10 Principles of Dignity in Care. Background: Older people in hospital are vulnerable and at risk of harm, including indignity. The 10 Principles of Dignity in Care, which undergird the United Kingdom's Dignity in Care Campaign, have been used to promote dignified care for older people in hospital. A 2006 recommendation of the campaign was to survey people on their experiences of dignity in care. To undertake such a survey, a questionnaire based on the 10 Principles of Dignity is required. Design: Qualitative methods based on a modified Delphi technique, assessed against the CREDES checklist. Methods: A Delphi panel of experts was convened that included: consumers, carers, clinicians, academics, policy experts and representatives from the National Dignity Council in the UK, Aboriginal people and people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Results: Fifty-seven experts consented to participate, over the three rounds of Delphi panel deliberations (response rate: R1 n = 49, R2 n = 47 and R3 n = 44). The Delphi panellists were asked to rank, rewrite, relocate or remove items and suggest additional items, under each of the 10 Principles of Dignity in Care. The initial list of 93 items, generated from a review of the literature, existing questionnaires and drafted by the authors, was reduced to 87 items in Round 2 and 69 items in Round 3. Conclusions: A panel of experts were able to determine, based on their own judgement, and through consensus, the 69-items and response categories to be included in the patient and carer versions of the Dignity in Care questionnaire, to progress to a pilot study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1960-1971
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Clinical Nursing
Issue number13-14
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Delphi technique
  • carers
  • dignity in care
  • healthcare rights
  • older people
  • patient's rights
  • patients' experience
  • questionnaire
  • survey

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)

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