Association of metabolic phenotypes, grip strength and diabetes risk: the 15-year follow-up of The North West Adelaide Health Study, Australia

Alline M. Beleigoli, Sarah L. Appleton, Tiffany K. Gill, Catherine L. Hill, Robert J. Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The association of diabetes risk in the long-term, metabolic phenotypes (MP) and muscle strength is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between strictly defined MP, grip strength (GS) and diabetes. Material and methods: MP were defined according to BMI and presence of any individual metabolic abnormality for ≥18 years, in participants of the North West Adelaide Health Study (Australia) free of diabetes at baseline. The association of MP and dominant hand GS with incident diabetes over 15-years follow-up and the moderation effect of GS on the association between diabetes and MP were investigated by logistic regression models. Results: Of 3039 participants followed over 13.3 years (SD 2.6), 236 (7.8%) developed diabetes. Compared to the metabolically healthy (MH) normal weight phenotype, the metabolically unhealthy (MU) overweight (OR 6.15, 95%CI 2.43–15.59) and obese (OR 12.32, 95%CI 4.97–30.52) phenotypes were associated with a high risk of diabetes, but not the MU normal weight (OR 1.73, 95%CI 0.57–5.25), MH overweight (OR 1.15, 95%CI 0.31–4.31) or MH obese phenotypes (OR 0.77, 0.07–8.89). GS was inversely associated with diabetes (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95–0.99) and attenuated the risk associated with MU overweight (beta = −0.296, p = 0.039) and MU normal weight (beta = −0.773; p for interaction = 0.009). Conclusion: Strictly defined MP (rather than based on metabolic syndrome criteria) and GS, a proxy of muscle strength, might be useful for stratifying the risk of diabetes in the long-term. Improving muscle strength might be an important strategy to reduce diabetes risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)536-541
Number of pages6
JournalObesity Research and Clinical Practice
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 1 Nov 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Diabetes
  • Grip strength
  • Metabolic phenotypes
  • Muscle strength
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this