Australian Atherosclerosis Society Position Statement on Lipoprotein(a): Clinical and Implementation Recommendations

Natalie C. Ward, Gerald F. Watts, Warrick Bishop, David Colquhoun, Christian Hamilton-Craig, David L. Hare, Nadarajah Kangaharan, Karam M. Kostner, Leonard Kritharides, Richard O'Brien, Trevor A. Mori, Paul J. Nestel, Stephen J. Nicholls, Peter J. Psaltis, Natalie Raffoul, Harvey D. White, David R. Sullivan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This position statement provides guidance to cardiologists and related specialists on the management of adult patients with elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. Elevated Lp(a) is an independent and causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). While circulating Lp(a) levels are largely determined by ancestry, they are also influenced by ethnicity, hormones, renal function, and acute inflammatory events, such that measurement should be done after accounting for these factors. Further, circulating Lp(a) concentrations should be estimated using an apo(a)-isoform independent assay that employs appropriate calibrators and reports the results in molar units (nmol/L). Selective screening strategies of high-risk patients are recommended, but universal screening of the population is currently not advised. Testing for elevated Lp(a) is recommended in all patients with premature ASCVD and those considered to be at intermediate-to-high risk of ASCVD. Elevated Lp(a) should be employed to assess and stratify risk and to enable a decision on initiation or intensification of preventative treatments, such as cholesterol lowering therapy. In adult patients with elevated Lp(a) at intermediate-to-high risk of ASCVD, absolute risk should be reduced by addressing all modifiable behavioural, lifestyle, psychosocial and clinical risk factors, including maximising cholesterol-lowering with statin and ezetimibe and, where appropriate, PCSK9 inhibitors. Apheresis should be considered in patients with progressive ASCVD. New ribonucleic acid (RNA)-based therapies which directly lower Lp(a) are undergoing clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)287-296
Number of pages10
JournalHeart Lung and Circulation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
  • Australian Atherosclerosis Society
  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Lipoprotein(a)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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