Compositional requirements of follow-up formula for use in infancy: Recommendations of an international expert group coordinated by the early nutrition academy

Berthold Koletzko, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Wei Cai, Sylvia Cruchet, Mohamed El Guindi, George J. Fuchs, Elizabeth A. Goddard, Johannes B. Van Goudoever, Seng Hock Quak, Bharati Kulkarni, Maria Makrides, Hugo Ribeiro, Allan Walker

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45 Citations (Scopus)
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The follow-up formula (FUF) standard of Codex Alimentarius adopted in 1987 does not correspond to the recently updated Codex infant formula (IF) standard and current scientific knowledge. New Zealand proposed a revision of the FUF Codex standard and asked the non-profit Early Nutrition Academy, in collaboration with the Federation of International Societies for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (FISPGHAN), for a consultation with paediatric nutrition experts to provide scientific guidance. This global expert group strongly supports breastfeeding. FUF are considered dispensable because IF can substitute for breastfeeding throughout infancy, but FUF are widely used and thus the outdated current FUF standard should be revised. Like IF, FUF serve as breast milk substitutes; hence their marketing should respect appropriate standards. The compositional requirements for FUF for infants from 6 months onwards presented here were unanimously agreed upon. For some nutrients, the compositional requirements for FUF differ from those of IF due to differing needs with infant maturation as well as a rising contribution of an increasingly diversified diet with advancing age. FUF should be fed with adequate complementary feeding that is also appropriate for partially breastfed infants. FUF could be fed also after the age of 1 year without safety concerns, but different compositional requirements should be applied for optimal, age-adapted milk-based formulations for young children used only after the age of 1 year. This has not been considered as part of this review and should be the subject of further consideration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-54
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Nutrition and Metabolism
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Jan 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Follow-up formula
  • Food standards
  • Infant feeding
  • Infant food
  • Infant nutrition
  • Nutritional requirements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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