Continuing Development and Initial Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Sonographer Skill-Teaching Perceptions in Clinical Practice

Delwyn Nicholls, Linda Sweet, Amanda Muller, Jon Hyett, Shahid Ullah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Objective Medical ultrasound examinations are performed by diverse professional cohorts: sonographers are one group. Little evidence exists regarding the teaching practices used in medical ultrasonography and their effectiveness. We report the continued development and validation of an instrument to measure sonographer skill-teaching practice perceptions (SonoSTePs). Methods An online survey was administered to a convenience sample of sonographers who were employed in Queensland, Australia. This paper reports on the continued psychometric testing of the measurement tool. Findings The 25-item scale demonstrated good internal reliability. Exploratory factor analysis generated four factors with acceptable internal reliability: Factor 1 (Skill execution feedback, Cronbach's α = 0.89), Factor 2 (Cognitive overload, Cronbach's α = 0.68), Factor 3 (Teach new skill, Cronbach's α = 0.70), and Factor 4 (Assist learners scanning, Cronbach's α = 0.67). The combined instrument value was 0.83. The weighted kappa of the test–retest items identified that the majority of items achieved an interrater level of agreement of ≥0.5. Conclusion Results indicate that the SonoSTePs instrument items and factors are underpinned by theories and principles related to teaching a complex psychomotor skill. The initial data suggest that the tool is both reliable and valid.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)82-89
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Medical Ultrasound
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Jun 2017


  • clinical skills
  • psychomotor skills
  • survey instrument
  • teaching
  • ultrasound
  • validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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