CoVaccine HT™ adjuvant is superior to Freund's adjuvants in eliciting antibodies against the endogenous alarmin HMGB1

Nerissa Lakhan, Natalie E. Stevens, Kerrilyn R. Diener, John D. Hayball

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Adjuvants are used to enhance the immune response against specific antigens for the production of antibodies, with the choice of adjuvant most critical for poorly immunogenic and self-antigens. This study quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated CoVaccine HT™ and Freund's adjuvants for eliciting therapeutic ovine polyclonal antibodies targeting the endogenous alarmin, high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Sheep were immunised with HMGB1 protein in CoVaccine HT™ or Freund's adjuvants, with injection site reactions and antibody titres periodically assessed. The binding affinity of antibodies for HMGB1 and their neutralisation activity was determined in-vitro, with in vivo activity confirmed using a murine model of endotoxemia. Results indicated that CoVaccine HT™ elicited significantly higher antibody tires with stronger affinity and more functional potency than antibodies induced with Freund's adjuvants. These studies provide evidence that CoVaccine HT™ is superior to Freund's adjuvants for the production of antibodies to antigens with low immunogenicity and supports the use of this alternative adjuvant for clinical and experimental use antibodies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-43
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Immunological Methods
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 1 Dec 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Adjuvant
  • Antibody
  • Antibody production
  • CoVaccine HT™
  • HMGB1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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