Development and validation of a shoulder-specific body-perception questionnaire in people with persistent shoulder pain

Tomohiko Nishigami, Akihisa Watanabe, Toshiki Maitani, Hayato Shigetoh, Akira Mibu, Benedict Martin Wand, Mark J. Catley, Tasha R. Stanton, G. Lorimer Moseley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: There is evidence that people with persistent shoulder pain exhibit findings consistent with the presence of sensorimotor dysfunction. Sensorimotor impairments can manifest in a variety of ways, and further developing our understanding of sensorimotor dysfunction in shoulder pain may improve current models of care. The Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire (FreBAQ) has been developed to assess disturbed body perception specific to the back. The purpose of the present study was to develop a shoulder-specific self-perception questionnaire and evaluate the questionnaire in people with persistent shoulder pain. Methods: The Fremantle Shoulder Awareness Questionnaire (FreSHAQ-J) was developed by modifying the FreBAQ. One hundred and twelve consecutive people with persistent shoulder pain completed the FreSHAQ-J. Thirty participants completed the FreSHAQ-J again two-weeks later to assess test-retest reliability. Rasch analysis was used to assess the psychometric properties of the FreSHAQ-J. Associations between FreSHAQ-J total score and clinical status was explored using correlational analysis. Results: The FreSHAQ-J has acceptable category order, unidimensionality, no misfitting items, and excellent test-retest reliability. The FreSHAQ-J was moderately correlated with disability and pain catastrophization. Conclusions: The FreSHAQ-J fits the Rasch measurement model well and is suitable for use with people with shoulder pain. Given the relationship between the FreSHAQ-J score and clinical status, change in body perception may be worth assessing when managing patients with shoulder pain.

Original languageEnglish
Article number98
JournalBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 21 Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Body perception
  • Rasch analysis
  • Reliability
  • Shoulder pain
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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