Development and validation of an iodine-specific FFQ to estimate iodine intake in Australian pregnant women

Dominique Condo, Maria Makrides, Sheila Skeaff, Shao J. Zhou

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28 Citations (Scopus)


Adequate iodine is important during pregnancy to ensure optimal growth and development of the offspring. We validated an iodine-specific FFQ (I-FFQ) for use in Australian pregnant women. A forty-four-item I-FFQ was developed to assess iodine intake from food and was administered to 122 pregnant women at 28 weeks gestation. Iodine supplement use was captured separately at 28 weeks gestation. Correlation between iodine intake from food estimated using the I-FFQ and a 4 d weighed food record as well as correlation between total iodine intake and 24 h urinary iodine excretion (UIE), 24 h urinary iodine concentration (UIC), spot UIC and thyroid function were assessed at 28 weeks gestation. A moderate correlation between the two dietary methods was shown (r 0·349, P< 0·001), and it was strengthened with the addition of iodine supplements (r 0·876, P< 0·001). There was a fair agreement (k= 0·28, P< 0·001) between the two dietary measures in the classification of women as receiving adequate ( ≥ 160 μg/d) or inadequate ( < 160 μg/d) iodine intake from food, but the limits of agreement from the Bland-Altman plot were large. Total iodine intake was associated with 24 h UIE (β = 0·488, P< 0·001) but not with spot UIC. Iodine intake from food using the I-FFQ was assessed at study entry ( < 20 weeks gestation) in addition to 28 weeks gestation, and there was a strong correlation in iodine intake at the two time points (r 0·622, P< 0·001), which indicated good reproducibility. In conclusion, the I-FFQ provides a valid tool for estimating iodine intake in pregnant women and can be used to screen women who are at risk of inadequate intake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)944-952
Number of pages9
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 28 Mar 2015


  • Diet
  • FFQ
  • Iodine
  • Pregnancy
  • Validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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