Development of the 25-item Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children (CVAQC)

Jyoti Khadka, Barbara Ryan, Tom H Margrain, Helen Court, J Margaret Woodhouse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

110 Citations (Scopus)


AIMS: To develop and validate a short questionnaire to assess self-reported visual ability in children and young people with a visual impairment.

METHODS: A list of 121 items was generated from 13 focus groups with children and young people with and without a visual impairment. A long 89-item questionnaire was piloted with 45 visually impaired children and young people using face-to-face interviews. Rasch analysis was used to analyse the response category function and to facilitate item removal ensuring a valid unidimensional scale. The validity and reliability of the short questionnaire were assessed on a group of 109 visually impaired children (58.7% boys; median age 13 years) using Rasch analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).

RESULTS: The final 25-item questionnaire has good validity and reliability as demonstrated by a person separation index of 2.28 and reliability coefficient of 0.84. The items are well targeted to the subjects with a mean difference of -0.40 logit between item and person means, and an ICC of 0.89 demonstrates good temporal stability.

CONCLUSION: The Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children (CVAQC) is a short, psychometrically robust and a self-reported instrument that works to form a unidimensional scale for the assessment of the visual ability in children and young people with a visual impairment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)730-5
Number of pages6
JournalThe British journal of ophthalmology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Jun 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Adolescent
  • Attitude to Health
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Epidemiologic Methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychometrics
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vision, Low
  • Visual Acuity
  • Visually Impaired Persons
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Studies

Cite this