Diagnosing diabetic nephropathy by 1H NMR metabonomics of serum

Ville Petteri Mäkinen, Pasi Soininen, Carol Forsblom, Maija Parkkonen, Petri Ingman, Kimmo Kaski, Per Henrik Groop, Mika Ala-Korpela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)


Object: The most severe complication of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is diabetic nephropathy. It is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular complications and premature death and requires early detection to be efficiently treated. The clinical practice to diagnose diabetic nephropathy is also a non-optimal and tedious set up based on albumin excretion rate in multiple overnight or 24h urine samples. Conversely, in this study, these independent diagnostic data are used to provide a realistic testing case for applying 1H NMR metabonomics of serum in a diagnostic fashion. Materials and Methods: 182 T1DM and 21 non-diabetic (non-T1DM) individuals were studied. The 1H NMR of serum at 500 MHz was targeted at two molecular windows: lipoprotein lipids and low-molecular-weight metabolites. Results: T1DM and non-T1DM individuals were exclusively separated by 1H NMR. For diabetic nephropathy diagnosis in the T1DM patients, 1H NMR data (and clinical biochemistry data) gave a sensitivity of 87.1% (83.9%) and a specificity of 87.7% (95.9%). The predictive values of positive and negative tests were 89.0% (95.5%) and 83.6% (79.2%), respectively. Conclusions: 1H NMR metabonomics clearly distinguishes metabolic characteristics of T1DM and appears approximately as good a means to diagnose diabetic nephropathy from serum as an advanced set of biochemical variables.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)281-296
Number of pages16
JournalMagnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Dec 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Blood Serum
  • Diabetic Nephropathy
  • NMR Spectroscopy
  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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