Effective interventions to reduce burnout in nurses: A meta-analysis

Mike Musker, Shwikar Othman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: To examine the effectiveness of interventions to ameliorate burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and emotional exhaustion in nurses and midwives. The systematic review was completed with all available studies that reported data on the effect of interventions that targeted burnout using the outcome measures of the Professional Quality of Life scale (ProQOL), or the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Methods: We used a systematic review methodology, which included a meta-analysis. A total of 2103 articles resulted from the systematic search; 688 were removed as duplicates, and 1415 articles were reviewed by the title and abstract, of which 255 were eligible for full-text screening. Only 66 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The final meta-analysis consisted of 33 reports divided into 12 studies for ProQOL and 21 studies for the MBI. Results: The results provide an overall effect in studies using the ProQOL measurement was Z = 2.07 (P = 0.04) and a positive improvement mean difference of 9.32. The overall effect in studies using MBI was Z = 3.13 (P = 0.002) and a positive improvement mean difference of 6.58. Conclusions: Whilst most studies indicated a positive difference, the most effective interventions included clinical supervision or activities that addressed the personal physical and mental well-being of nurses. Less effective interventions were managerial interventions or ones that used a strictly educational approach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101827
JournalComplementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Feb 2024


  • Burnout
  • Emotional exhaustion
  • Meta-analysis
  • Nurses
  • Psychosocial intervention
  • Secondary traumatic stress
  • Systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine

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