Endometrial thickness in women undergoing IUI with ovarian stimulation. How thick is too thin? A systematic review and meta-analysis

N. S. Weiss, M. N. Van Vliet, J. Limpens, P. G.A. Hompes, C. B. Lambalk, M. H. Mochtar, F. Van Der Veen, B. W.J. Mol, M. Van Wely

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

67 Citations (Scopus)


Study Question Is pre-ovulatory endometrial thickness (EMT) in women with unexplained subfertility undergoing IUI with ovarian stimulation (OS) associated with pregnancy chances? Summary Answer We found no evidence for an association between EMT and pregnancy chances. What is Known Already It has been suggested that OS with clomiphene citrate (CC) results in a lower EMT than with gonadotrophins or aromatase inhibitors, but the clinical consequences in terms of pregnancy are unclear. Study Design, Size, Duration We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing CC, gonadotrophins or aromatase inhibitors in an IUI program reporting on EMT and pregnancy rates in women with unexplained subfertility. Participants/Materials, Setting, Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the non-MEDLINE subset of PubMed from inception to 28th June 2016 and cross-checked references of relevant articles. Outcome measures were clinical pregnancy rate and mean pre-ovulatory EMT. We calculated mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs with a fixed effect model, and in case of heterogeneity with an I 2 > 50% a random effect model. We performed a meta-regression analysis to determine if stimulating drugs interacted with the estimated effect of EMT. Main Results and The Role of chance Our search retrieved 1563 articles of which 23 were included, totaling 3846 women. There were 17 RCTs and 6 cohort studies. The average study quality was low and there was considerable to substantial statistical heterogeneity. Seven studies provided data on EMT in relation to pregnancy. There was no evidence of a difference in EMT between women who conceived and women that did not conceive (1525 women, MD random: 0.51 mm, 95% CI: -0.05 to 1.07). Women treated with CC had a significantly thinner EMT than women treated with gonadotrophins (two studies, MD: -0.33, 95% CI: -0.64 to -0.01). There was no evidence of a difference in EMT when comparing CC with letrozole (five studies, MD random: -0.84, 95% CI: -1.97 to 0.28). The combination of CC plus gonadotrophins resulted in a slightly thinner endometrium than letrozole (nine studies, MD random: -0.79, 95% CI: -1.37 to -0.20). Letrozole resulted in a thinner EMT than gonadotrophins (two studies, MD random: -1.31, 95% CI: -2.08 to -0.53). Limitations, Reasons For Caution The overall quality of the included studies was low to moderate. We found considerable to substantial heterogeneity in the comparisons, hampering firm conclusions. Wider Implications of The Findings We found no evidence for an association between EMT and pregnancy rates during IUI -OS. As a consequence, canceling IUI cycles because of a thin endometrial lining may negatively affect clinical care. Although we found some evidence for very small differences in EMT when comparing various drugs, we cannot make inferences on their effect on pregnancy chances since these differences may be coincidental. Study Funding/Competing Interest(S) None.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1009-1018
Number of pages10
JournalHuman Reproduction
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 1 May 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • IUI
  • endometrial thickness
  • endometrium
  • ovarian stimulation
  • pregnancy rates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

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