Estimation of VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL2, apoA-I, and apoB from the Friedewald inputsapoB and IDL, but not LDL, are associated with mortality in type 1 diabetes

Jaakko Niemi, Ville Petteri Mäkinen, Jukka Heikkonen, Leena Tenkanen, Yrjö Hiltunen, Minna L. Hannuksela, Matti Jauhiainen, Carol Forsblom, Marja Riitta Taskinen, Y. Antero Kesäniemi, Markku J. Savolainen, Kimmo Kaski, Per Henrik Groop, Petri T. Kovanen, Mika Ala-Korpela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Background. There is an unmet need for a straightforward and cost-effective assessment of multiple lipoprotein risk factors for vascular diseases. Aims. 1) To study the relation of various lipoprotein lipid and apolipoprotein (apo) measures on the Friedewald inputs, i.e. plasma triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). 2) To build up regression models for the appropriate measures based solely on the Friedewald inputs. Methods. Data were available for 1,775 plasma samples, from which very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and HDL were also isolated by ultracentrifugation. For HDL2-C and apolipoproteins, 343 and 247 samples were available, respectively. Results. Accurate models were obtained for VLDL-TG (cross-validation r=0.98), LDL-C (r=0.91), HDL2-C (r=0.92), apoA-I (r=0.92), and apoB (r=0.95). A semi-quantitative model was obtained for IDL-C (r=0.78). Due to the anticipated role of IDL-C in atherosclerosis, it was still kept within the accepted models and pursued further. The associations of the estimates with premature deaths were studied in 4,084 patients with type 1 diabetes. The associations of IDL-C and LDL-C were markedly different, the best predictors of mortality being apoB, apoB to apoA-I ratio, and IDL-C. Conclusions. The new models allow identification of clinically relevant lipoprotein profiles with no added cost to the conventional Friedewald formula.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)451-461
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Lipid metabolism
  • Medical informatics computing
  • Metabolic diseases
  • Neural networks (computer)
  • Ultracentrifugation
  • Vascular diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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