Evaluating the quality of care received in long-term care facilities from a consumer perspective: Development and construct validity of the Consumer Choice Index - Six Dimension instrument

Rachel Milte, Julie Ratcliffe, Clare Bradley, Wendy Shulver, Maria Crotty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The Consumer Choice Index - Six Dimension (CCI-6D) is a new instrument designed specifically to evaluate the quality of care received in long-term care from a consumer perspective. This study aims to demonstrate the construct validity of the CCI-6D. Older residents living in long-term care facilities and proxy family carers (where severely impaired cognition precluded resident consent) participated as consumers of long-term care. Data collected included the CCI-6D instrument, quality of life, physical function and characteristics of the care facility. Relationships between these variables and the CCI-6D dimensions were assessed and analysed through chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests to assess the construct validity of each dimension. Of 430 eligible consumers, a total of 253 completed the questionnaire, of whom 68 (27%) were residents and 185 (73%) were informal carer proxy participants. There was strong evidence of construct validity of the dimensions relating to adequacy of individual care time, access to outside and gardens, access to meaningful activities and flexibility of care. There was more moderate evidence of validity of the home-like own room and shared spaces items, which may be in part due to difficulty in identifying strong discriminatory variables for comparison with these items. The results also indicate a strong association between 'processes' of care delivery (as measured by the CCI-6D) and quality of life of care recipients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)138-160
Number of pages23
JournalAgeing and Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 1 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • long-term care
  • nursing home
  • outcome measurement
  • person-centred care
  • validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Health(social science)
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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