Health-Related Quality of Life Among People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Ethiopia: PROQOL-HIV Based Survey

Tsegaye Melaku, Girma Mamo, Legese Chelkeba, Tesfahun Chanie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: As infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has evolved into a chronic disease, perceived health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is becoming a prominent and important patient-reported outcome measure in HIV care. This study aimed to assess HRQoL among people living with HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy and factors associated with HRQoL in Ethiopia.

Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 HIV-infected patients who were initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy at Jimma University Medical Center in 2016. HRQoL was assessed using the patient-reported outcome quality of life-HIV (PROQOL-HIV) measuring scale. Linear regressions were used to identify factors associated with outcome. Statistical significance was considered at p-value <0.05.

Results: Out of a total of 160 participants, 63.13% were females. The mean (±SD) age of study participants was 41.47±9.45 years. The median baseline CD4+ cell count was 182.00 cells/µL (IQR: 104.53-262.40 cells/µL). The mean (±SD) score of PROQOL-HIV scale domains was 77.58 ±15.11, 58.32 ±7.79, 61.75± 17.95, 85.07 ±15.67, 76.92 ± 20.52, 80.00 ±16.83, 74.37 ± 1.47, 81.45 ± 8.17 for physical health and symptoms, emotional distress, health concerns, body change, intimate relationships, social relationships, stigma, and treatment impact domains, respectively. Second line antiretroviral therapy showed a negative effect on the quality of life, especially on the treatment impact domain (β=-6.301). Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy had a significant positive effect on the physical health and symptoms of HIV patients (β= +8.381, p<0.05). Advanced disease (β=-2.709, p<0.05), and non-communicable disease comorbidity (β=-14.340, p<0.001) showed a significant negative effect on physical health and symptoms.

Conclusion: Several behavioral, clinical & immunological factors were negatively associated with health-related quality of life. The double burden of chronic non-communicable disease(s) and the impact of treatment were highly significant in all dimensions of HRQoL measures. Therefore, with HRQoL emerging as a key issue for HIV-infected patients, its routine assessment and appropriate interventions at each clinic visit would be very crucial.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-86
Number of pages14
JournalPatient related outcome measures
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 2020
Externally publishedYes

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