Hemodynamic and central nervous system effects of intravenous bolus doses of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine in sheep

A. J. Rutten, C. Nancarrow, L. E. Mather, A. H. Ilsley, W. B. Runciman, R. N. Upton

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Lidocaine hydrochloride (HCl) (80-320 mg), bupivacaine HCl (20-80 mg), and ropivacaine HCl (30-120 mg) were administered as intravenous bolus doses to conscious sheep (n = 18; average body weight 45 kg) that had previously placed intravascular cannulae for hemodynamic monitoring and for obtaining blood samples. The mean convulsive doses and arterial blood concentrations were ~110 mg and 40 mg/L, respectively, for lidocaine HCl, 45 mg and 14 mg/L for bupivacaine HCl, and 60 mg and 20 mg/L for ropivacaine HCl. After subconvulsive doses of each agent, there were minimal cardiovascular effects. After convulsive doses, there were marked minimal cardiovascular effects. After convulsive doses, there were increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, left ventricular and diastolic pressure, and myocardial contractility. Ventricular fibrillation caused death in two sheep after bupivacaine (80 mg) and in two sheep after ropivacaine (90 and 120 mg) administration. With sublethal doses, the hemodynamic responses to these agents were qualitatively and quantitatively similar when compared with their local anesthetic potencies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-299
Number of pages9
JournalAnesthesia and Analgesia
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 1989
Externally publishedYes


  • anesthetics, local-bupivacaine, lidocaine, ropivacaine
  • toxicity-local anesthetic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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