Human leukocyte antigens and cytokine expression in cerebral inflammatory demyelinative lesions of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and multiple sclerosis

M. C. McGuinness, J. M. Powers, W. B. Bias, B. J. Schmeckpeper, A. H. Segal, V. C. Gowda, S. L. Wesselingh, J. Berger, D. E. Griffin, K. D. Smith

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78 Citations (Scopus)


The two most common forms of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) are the cerebral forms (CER) with an inflammatory demyelinating reaction that resembles multiple sclerosis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) which involves primarily the spinal cord and in which the inflammatory reaction is mild or absent. We found no significant association between the childhood cerebral form (CCER) or AMN and the human leukocyte (HLA) class I and class II antigens including the class II DR2 haplotypes associated with multiple sclerosis. Inflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-4, interleukin-6 and interferon-γ) gene expression was increased in multiple sclerosis brain lesions, as has been reported previously, but much less so in CER brain lesions. These findings suggest that the pathogenesis of the inflammatory response in X-ALD differs from that in multiple sclerosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-182
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished or Issued - May 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy
  • cytokines
  • human leukocyte antigens
  • multiple sclerosis
  • tumor necrosis factor-α

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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