Interaction of insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and appetite in response to intraduodenal carbohydrate

Jacquelynne H. Lavin, Gary A. Wittert, Jane Andrews, Bu Yeap, Judith M. Wishart, Howard A. Morris, John E. Morley, Michael Horowitz, Nicholas W. Read

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103 Citations (Scopus)


The relation between gastrointestinal incretin hormones in the control of insulin release and short-term satiety by intestinal carbohydrate was investigated in 8 fasted, healthy male volunteers. Insulin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and appetite ratings were measured during, and food intake was measured after, intraduodenal infusions of glucose or saline. Studies were conducted under hyperinsulinemic and euglycemic conditions. Raising plasma insulin with intravenous insulin infusion to concentrations slightly above usual postprandial concentrations (356.4 ± 4.8 pmol/L) had no effect on GIP, GLP- 1, or appetite ratings before the intraduodenal infusions began. Intraduodenal glucose infusion resulted in a further increase in plasma insulin to a peak of 779.4 ± 114.0 pmol/L, caused an early increase in plasma GIP and a later increase in GLP-1 concentrations (P < 0.01), suppressed appetite (P < 0.05), and reduced energy intake (P < 0.01) compared with intraduodenal infusion of saline. There was a close association between the increase in GLP-1 and decrease in appetite. Infusion of octreotide to suppress the release of gastrointestinal hormones prevented the rise in insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 induced by intraduodenal glucose infusion and reversed the suppression of appetite and reduction in energy intake. These results suggest that 1) when infused to result in plasma concentrations slightly above usual postprandial concentrations, insulin does not inhibit its own release and 2) the effects of intraduodenal glucose on appetite may be mediated through the release of GLP-1 and not insulin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)591-598
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Sep 1998


  • GIP
  • GLP-1
  • Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
  • Glucagon-like peptide 1
  • Glucose
  • Incretin hormones
  • Insulin
  • Men
  • Satiety
  • Small intestine
  • Somatostatin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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