Patient-reported Outcomes for Assessment of Quality of Life in Refractive Error: A Systematic Review

Himal Kandel, Jyoti Khadka, Michael Goggin, Konrad Pesudovs

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


SIGNIFICANCE: This review has identified the best existing patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments in refractive error. The article highlights the limitations of the existing instruments and discusses the way forward.

PURPOSE: A systematic review was conducted to identify the types of PROs used in refractive error, to determine the quality of the existing PRO instruments in terms of their psychometric properties, and to determine the limitations in the content of the existing PRO instruments.

METHODS: Articles describing a PRO instrument measuring 1 or more domains of quality of life in people with refractive error were identified by electronic searches on the MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. The information on content development, psychometric properties, validity, reliability, and responsiveness of those PRO instruments was extracted from the selected articles. The analysis was done based on a comprehensive set of assessment criteria.

RESULTS: One hundred forty-eight articles describing 47 PRO instruments in refractive error were included in the review. Most of the articles (99 [66.9%]) used refractive error-specific PRO instruments. The PRO instruments comprised 19 refractive, 12 vision but nonrefractive, and 16 generic PRO instruments. Only 17 PRO instruments were validated in refractive error populations; six of them were developed using Rasch analysis. None of the PRO instruments has items across all domains of quality of life. The Quality of Life Impact of Refractive Correction, the Quality of Vision, and the Contact Lens Impact on Quality of Life have comparatively better quality with some limitations, compared with the other PRO instruments.

CONCLUSIONS: This review describes the PRO instruments and informs the choice of an appropriate measure in refractive error. We identified need of a comprehensive and scientifically robust refractive error-specific PRO instrument. Item banking and computer-adaptive testing system can be the way to provide such an instrument.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1102-1119
Number of pages18
JournalOptometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Contact Lenses
  • Humans
  • Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures
  • Patient Reported Outcome Measures
  • Psychometrics
  • Quality of Life
  • Refractive Errors
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Journal Article
  • Review

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