Prevalence and sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of anemia during pregnancy: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women in China

Xianglong Xu, Sheng Liu, Yunshuang Rao, Zumin Shi, Lian Lian Wang, Manoj Sharma, Yong Zhao

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17 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: This study aimed to assess the differences regarding anemia among pregnant women with diverse characteristics and lifestyle factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women was conducted between June and August 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces of Mainland China. Self-reported doctor-diagnosed anemia was used in the study. Results: We included 2345 pregnant women. Of the participants, 1755 (74.8%) were pregnant women of first pregnancy (PWFP) and 590 (25.2%) were second pregnancy (PWSP). The mean age of the participants was 28.1 years (SD 4.1). Overall, the prevalence of anemia was 12.7% (13.4% and 10.7% among PWFP and PWSP, respectively). The prevalence for not eating breakfast was 11.0%. Compared with PWFP, PWSP was inversely associated with the risk of anemia (odds ratio (OR) 0.66, 95% CI 0.48-0.91). Compared with those being registered in a low ranking hospital, pregnant women who were admitted to a high (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28-0.57) or a medium ranking hospital (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.92) were inversely associated with the risk of anemia. Compared with women of low income (<¥4,500), those with high income were less likely to have anemia (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.94). Compared with women with non-manual jobs, women with manual jobs (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17-2.45) and unemployed women (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.93) were associated with a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Conclusions: Pregnant women not eating breakfast are of concern. Anemia is highly prevalent among pregnant women in China. Lower socio-economic status, manual jobs, PWFP, and those who attend a lower quality hospital have a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Tailored interventions are needed to address these issues.

Original languageEnglish
Article number908
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 13 Sept 2016


  • Anemia
  • China
  • Lifestyle
  • Pregnant women
  • Sociodemographic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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