Changes in macrophage phenotype induced during infection result from the recognition of bacterial products as well as the action of bacterial virulence factors. We used the unprecedented opportunity provided by gene arrays to simultaneously study the expression of hundreds of genes during Salmonella typhimurium infection of macrophages and to assess the contribution of the bacterial virulence factor, LPS, in initiating the host responses to Salmonella. We found that S. typhimurium infection caused significant changes in the expression of numerous genes encoding chemokines, cell surface receptors, signaling molecules, and transcriptional activators at 4 h postinfection of the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our results revealed changes in the expression of several genes that had not been previously implicated in the host responses to S. typhimurium infection, as well as changes in the expression of several genes previously shown to be regulated by S. typhimurium infection. An overlapping spectrum of genes was expressed in response to virulent S. typhimurium and purified S. typhimurium LPS, reinforcing the major role of this surface molecule in stimulating the early response of macrophages to bacterial infection. The macrophage gene expression profile was further altered by activation with IFN-γ, indicating that host cell responses depend on the activation state of the cell.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy