Sex differences in clinical profile, management, and outcomes of patients hospitalized for atrial fibrillation in the United States

Jean Jacques Noubiap, Gijo Thomas, Thomas A. Agbaedeng, John L. Fitzgerald, Celine Gallagher, Melissa E. Middeldorp, Prashanthan Sanders

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Aims This study aimed to investigate the impact of sex on the clinical profile, utilization of rhythm control therapies, cost of hospitalization, length of stay, and in-hospital mortality in patients admitted for atrial fibrillation (AF) in the United States. Methods and results We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the year 2018. Regression analysis was performed to investigate differences between men and women. A P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. We included 82592 patients with a primary diagnosis of of AF 50.8% women. Women were significantly older (mean age 74 vs. 67 years, P < 0.001) and had a higher CHA2DS2-VASc score (median 4 vs. 2, P < 0.001) than men. Women had relatively higher in-hospital mortality (0.9% vs. 0.8%, P = 0.070); however, after adjustment for known risk factors female sex was no longer a predictor of mortality (P = 0.199). In sex-specific regression analyses, increased age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, previous stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease were risk factors for in-hospital mortality in both sexes, vascular disease only in women, and race and alcohol abuse only in men. After adjusting for potential confounders, female sex was associated with lower likelihood of receiving catheter ablation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64–0.74] and electrical cardioversion (aOR 0.69, 95% CI 0.67–0.72), and with longer hospitalization (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.28–1.37), whereas sex had no influence on hospitalization costs (P = 0.339). Conclusion There were differences in the risk profile, management, and outcomes between men and women hospitalized for AF. Further studies are needed to explore why women are treated differently regarding rhythm control procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)852-860
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished or Issued - 1 Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Cardioversion
  • Catheter ablation
  • Mortality
  • Risk factor
  • Sex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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