The clomiphene citrate challenge test for the prediction of poor ovarian response and nonpregnancy in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization: a systematic review

Dave J. Hendriks, Ben Willem J. Mol, Laszlo F.J.M.M. Bancsi, Egbert R. te Velde, Frank J.M. Broekmans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To systematically review the value of the clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT) in the prediction of poor ovarian response and pregnancy in IVF. Design: Systematic review. Setting: All studies that evaluated the CCCT in the prediction of poor ovarian response or pregnancy after IVF. Patient(s): Infertility population undergoing an IVF treatment. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Poor ovarian response, nonpregnancy. Result(s): From the literature we identified and analyzed 12 studies on the CCCT according to preset criteria. In predicting poor response, the sensitivity and specificity of the CCCT varied from 35% to 93% and 47% to 98%, respectively. In predicting nonpregnancy, the sensitivity and specificityvaried from 13% to 66% and 73% to 97%, respectively. Because of heterogeneity among studies, a summary receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve could not be estimated. Back-to-back comparison of the CCCT with basal FSH was possible in six studies. In predicting poor response, the sensitivity of the CCCT increased to some extent, whereas specificity did not increase or even diminished. In predicting nonpregnancy, the CCCT also showed an increase in sensitivity, counteracted by a decrease in specificity. Conclusion(s): Summary estimates of test accuracy for the CCCT in IVF are not possible, because of heterogeneity among individual studies. A subanalysis of studies comparing basal FSH and the full CCCT showed that the CCCT has hardly any additional value.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)807-818
Number of pages12
JournalFertility and Sterility
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished or Issued - Oct 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Basal FSH
  • CCCT
  • IVF
  • meta-analysis
  • ovarian response
  • pregnancy
  • systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

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